我国自然保护区建设中社区参与问题和对策研究毕业论文_农林经济管理毕业论文

我国自然保护区建设中社区参与问题和对策研究毕业论文

2021-04-08更新

摘 要

社区参与自然保护区建设是平衡保护区与社区居民关系,保证保护区管理工作高效进行,加强生态环境保护的同时提高保护区内社区经济发展水平的重要手段之一。而在我国目前的保护区建设中,自然保护区的社区参与机制还存在着诸多问题。为了了解社区共管保护区建设存在的问题及问题出现的原因,了解保护区居民对社区参与保护区建设的认知程度,明确影响社区居民参与保护区建设意愿的主要因素,本文的研究选取了安徽天马自然保护区作为研究案例点,通过针对保护区内社区居民的问卷调查及保护区内相关政府部门和保护区建设者的专项访谈,获得了基础数据与资料,并结合安徽天马保护区的现行社区参与建设的措施,介绍了安徽天马保护地建设过程中居民参与的现状。

本文在对我国自然保护区建设中社区参与现状分析的基础上,指出我国自然保护区建设社区参与方面存在的问题,主要有居民缺乏参与保护区建设的意愿,农家乐等居民参与形式覆盖面狭窄、形式单一以及政府未能做到保护区建设的收益共享三个方面,文章并从居民认为保护区建设对其收益造成了负面影响,保护区内居民老龄化和人才流失严重以及社区补偿和激励机制缺失这三个方面来分析问题存在的原因,最后本文结合外国社区参与保护区建设的先进经验,提出了完善基础生活设施,将资源保护和社区发展结合起来、给予居民适当的生态补偿、加强保护区对当地居民的宣传教育和以人为本,重视居民利益的协调,成立社区共管组织,有效解决与社区居民切实相关的问题等五个方面的政策建议。

关键词:自然保护区;社区参与;生态补偿

Problems and Countermeasures of Community Participation in the Construction of Nature Reserves in China

ABSTRACT

Community participation in nature reserve construction is one of the important means to balance the relationship between nature reserve and community residents, ensure the efficient management of nature reserve, strengthen the protection of ecological environment and improve the level of community economic development in nature reserve.However, in the construction of protected areas in China, there are still many problems in the community participation mechanism of nature reserves.In order to understand the problems existing in the construction of community-managed nature reserves and the reasons for them, to understand the residents’awareness of community participation in the construction of nature reserves, and to identify the main factors affecting the willingness of community residents to participate in the construction of nature reserves, this paper selected Tianma Nature Reserve in Anhui Province as a case study point. Through special interviews with relevant government departments and constructors of Tianma Reserve, basic data and information were obtained. Combining with the current measures of community participation in the construction of Tianma Reserve in Anhui Province, the present situation of residents’participation in the construction of Tianma Reserve in Anhui Province was introduced.

Based on the analysis of the present situation of community participation in the construction of nature reserves in China, this paper points out the existing problems in community participation in the construction of nature reserves in China, including the lack of willingness of residents to participate in the construction of nature reserves, the narrow coverage and the single form of residents’participation forms such as farmhouse entertainment, and the failure of the government to share the benefits of the construction of nature reserves.The paper also analyses the causes of the problems from three aspects: residents’view that the construction of protected areas has a negative impact on their income, residents’ aging and brain drain, and the lack of community compensation and incentive mechanism.Finally, combining with the advanced experience of foreign communities in participating in the construction of protected areas, this paper puts forward five policy suggestions: improving basic living facilities, combining resource protection with community development, giving residents appropriate ecological compensation, strengthening the propaganda and education of protected areas to local residents, putting people first, paying attention to the coordination of residents’interests establishing community co-management organizations, and effectively solving the practical problems related to community residents..

Key words:nature reserve;community participation;ecological compensation

目 录

1 绪 论 1

1.1 研究背景 1

1.2 研究目的和意义 1

1.2.1 研究目的 1

1.2.2 研究意义 2

1.3 国内外研究综述 2

1.3.1 国外研究综述 2

1.3.2 国内研究综述 3

1.3.3 国内外研究评述 4

1.4 研究思路与方法 5

1.4.1 研究思路 5

1.4.2 研究方法 5

1.4.3 技术路线 6

2 相关概念界定及理论基础 8

2.1 基本概念 8

2.1.1 自然保护区 8

2.1.2 社区 8

2.1.3 社区参与 9

2.2 研究的理论基础 9

2.2.1 参与式发展理论 9

2.2.2 外部性理论 9

2.2.3 利益相关者理论 10

3 我国自然保护区建设中社区参与现状分析 11

3.1 案例选择及案例点概况 11

3.1.1 案例点的选择标准 11

3.1.2 案例点建设基本情况介绍 12

3.1.3 调查过程和样本描述 13

3.2 案例点自然保护区现行社区参与措施及参与成效 13

3.2.1 案例点自然保护区现行社区参与措施 13

3.2.2 案例点自然保护区现行社区参与成效 14

3.3 居民对保护区建设的认知分析 15

3.3.1 居民对保护区建设认知的调研数据分析 15

3.3.2 居民对保护区建设认知现状的原因分析 16

3.4 居民对参与保护区建设的意愿分析 17

3.4.1 居民对参与保护区建设的总体意愿分析 17

3.4.2 家庭年收入对居民参与保护区建设的意愿的影响 17

3.4.3 保护区是否带来收入对居民参与保护区建设的意愿的影响 18

4 我国自然保护区建设中社区参与方面存在的问题及原因分析 20

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