地方政府在农村环境治理中的责任及实现机制研究毕业论文_农林经济管理毕业论文

地方政府在农村环境治理中的责任及实现机制研究毕业论文

2021-04-19更新

摘 要

进入21世纪以来,随着高速发展的城市化和工业化,国民经济的飞速发展极大地提升了人民的生活水平,而随之而来的环境污染也逐渐严重,占据中国广大区域的农村地区的环境也不可避免的破坏。近年来,城市环境污染已经得到一定程度的缓解,但农村由于经济条件、技术、文化水平的相对落后,环境问题却越来越严峻。如何遏制农村环境被进一步破坏,如何正确处理经济发展与环境保护之间,处理好各利益相关者直接的关系,这对当前我国政府,尤其是对地方政府是一个重大的考验。

本文通过对国内外研究成果的综合概括,利用环境经济学知识及经济学理论,剖析了当前我国农村环境保护中出现各类问题的原因,并结合安徽省N县当前的农村环境问题现状实例,分析了我国当前农村环境问题的主要治理模式,并指出其不足。在实证和理论的双重基础上,本文认为,贯彻中央政府对于环境保护的政策,遏制农村环境污染进一步扩大,提高农村环境保护效果,必须建立健全的地方环境保护机制。并提出,农村环境保护及污染治理问题不能再走过去政府包办的老路,而应形成以政府——市场——社会为基础框架的多元治理模式。最后,本文提出了一些提高地方政府的农村环境治理和保护能力的政策建议。

关键词:农村环境;地方政府;责任;多中心合作

Responsibilities and implementation mechanism of local government in the rural environment treatment

ABSTRACT

In the 21st century, with the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, rapid economic development of the country were greatly improved people’s living standards, and the consequent serious environmental pollution have gradually occupied the environment in rural areas of China’s vast area inevitable destruction.Recently ,urban environmental pollution has been a certain degree of ease, but in rural areas due to the relatively backward economic conditions, technical, cultural level, the environment has become more critical.How to contain further damage to the rural environment, between economic development and environmental protection how to deal properly handle the relationship between the various stakeholders, which is our current government, especially local government is a major test.

Based on the research results of the comprehensive summary, the use of environmental economics and economic theory, analyzes the reasons for the emergence of the current rural environmental protection in all kinds of problems, combined with the current status of the rural environment instance N County, Anhui Province,It analyzes the main governance mode of the current environmental problems in rural areas, and pointed out its shortcomings.In the dual basis of empirical and theoretical, the paper believes, to implement the central government policy of environmental protection, curb environmental pollution in rural areas to further expand and improve rural environmental protection effect, it must establish and improve the local environmental protection mechanisms. And suggested that rural environmental protection and pollution problems can not be going back to the old government arranged, but should form a government – market – society based on pluralistic governance framework. Finally, this paper presents some policy recommendations to improve the rural environment governance and protection of local government.

Key words:Rural Environment Local Government Responsibility Multi-center collaboration

目 录

1.引言………………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1研究背景………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.2研究目的和意义………………………………………………………………………………1

1.3研究思路和框架………………………………………………………………………………3

2.相关理论基础及综述………………………………………………………………………………3

2.1理论基础……………………………………………………………………………………3

2.1.1公共治理理论………………………………………………………………………………3

2.1.2环境经济学理论……………………………………………………………………………3

2.1.3外部性理论及公共产品……………………………………………………………………3

2.2现有问题及国内外研究综述……………………………………………………………………4

2.2.1农村污染分类的研究……………………………………………………………………4

2.2.2农业环境问题成因的研究…………………………………………………………………5

2.2.3对农村环境管理法制体系建设的研究……………………………………………………5

2.2.4对农民环境保护意识及观念方面的研究…………………………………………………5

2.2.5政府在农村环境污染治理中的责任研究…………………………………………………5

3.我国农村环境的现状及成因…………………………………………………………………………7

3.1农村环境现状………………………………………………………………………………………7

3.2成因分析………………………………………………………………………………………8

3.2.1落后的农业生产方式造成的环境污染和生态破坏……………………………8

3.2.2多数农民的环境保护意识淡漠…………………………………………………8

3.2.3产业结构不合理…………………………………………………………………9

3.2.4制度不完善,职能不明晰…………………………………………………………9

3.2.5相关法律法规体系不健全……………………^…^………………………………9

3.2.6政府考绩不合理,农村环保资金投入不足………………………………………9

4.地方政府在农村环境污染治理中的责任及困境…………………………………………………11

4.1地方政府应当承担起环境保护的责任…………………………………………………………11

4.1.1环境的公共物品特性和外部性…………………………………………………………11

4.1.2地方政府在环境保护中的责任界定……………………………………………………11

4.2经济发展优先还是环境保护优先?——政府的困境……………………………………………11

4.2.1地方政府与高层政府之间的矛盾…………………………………………………………11

4.2.2地方政府与当地企业之间的矛盾…………………………………………………………12

4.2.3同级政府之间的矛盾………………………………………………………………………12

4.2.4政府与社会团体,居民个体之间的关系…………………………………………………12

  1. 新的思路和治理模式——多中心治理理论……………………………………………………13

5.1产生背景……………………………………………………………………………………13

5.2多中心治理理论对公共产品供给的研究…………………………………………………13

  1. 案例分析——以安徽省N县为例…………………………………………………………14

6.1背景简介…………………………………………………………………………………………14

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